Monday, March 28, 2011

HelloAll


(15-1) Net working capital F S Answer: b  EASY
1. Net working capital, defined as current assets minus the sum of payables 
and accruals, is equal to the current ratio minus the quick ratio.
a. True
b. False
(15-1) Net working capital F S Answer: b  EASY
2. Net working capital is defined as current assets divided by current 
liabilities.
a. True
b. False
(15-1) Working capital F S Answer: b  EASY
3. An increase in any current asset must be accompanied by an equal 
increase in some current liability.
a. True
b. False
(15-2) Working capital policy F S Answer: a  EASY
4. Determining a firm's optimal investment in working capital and deciding 
how that investment should be financed are elements of working capital 
policy.
a. True
b. False
(15-3) Permanent current assets F S Answer: a  EASY
5. The concept of permanent current assets reflects the fact that some 
components of current assets do not shrink to zero even when a business 
is at its seasonal or cyclical low.  Thus, permanent current assets 
represent a minimum level of current assets that must be financed.
a. True
b. False
(15-3) Conservative financing F S Answer: a  EASY
6. A conservative financing approach to working capital will result in 
permanent current assets and some seasonal current assets being financed
using long-term securities.
a. True
b. False
(15-3) Current asset financing F S Answer: a  EASY
7. Although short-term interest rates have historically averaged less than 
long-term rates, the heavy use of short-term debt is considered to be an
aggressive current asset financing strategy because of the inherent 
risks of using short-term financing.
a. True
b. False(15-4) Cash conversion cycle F S Answer: b  EASY
8. If a firm takes actions that reduce its days sales outstanding (DSO), 
then, other things held constant, this will lengthen its cash conversion
cycle (CCC).
a. True
b. False
(15-4) Cash conversion cycle F S Answer: b  EASY
9. Other things held constant, if a firm "stretches" (i.e., delays paying) 
its accounts payable, this will lengthen its cash conversion cycle 
(CCC).
a. True
b. False
(15-5) Cash budget F S Answer: a  EASY
10. Shorter-term cash budgets--say a daily cash budget for the next month--
are generally used for actual cash control while longer-term cash 
budgets--say monthly cash budgets for the next year--are generally used 
for planning purposes.
a. True
b. False
(15-6) Lockbox F S Answer: a  EASY
11. Setting up a lockbox arrangement is one way for a firm to speed up the 
collection of payments from its customers.
a. True
b. False
(15-7) Inventory management F S Answer: b  EASY
12. Inventory management is largely self-contained in the sense that very 
little coordination among the sales, purchasing, and production 
personnel is required for successful inventory management.
a. True
b. False
(15-8) Receivables balance F S Answer: a  EASY
13. The average accounts receivables balance is a function of both the 
volume of credit sales and the days sales outstanding.
a. True
b. False
(15-8) Credit policy F S Answer: a  EASY
14. The four primary elements in a firm's credit policy are (1) credit 
standards, (2) discounts offered, (3) credit period, and (4) collection 
policy.
a. True
b. False(15-9) Taking discounts F S Answer: a  EASY
15. Not taking cash discounts is costly, and as a result, firms that do not 
take them are usually those that are performing poorly and have 
inadequate cash balances.
a. True
b. False
(15-9) Trade credit F S Answer: b  EASY
16. If a firm buys on terms of 2/10, net 30, it should pay as early as 
possible during the discount period.
a. True
b. False
(15-9) Trade credit F S Answer: b  EASY
17. Trade credit can be separated into two components:  free trade credit, 
which is credit received after the discount period ends, and costly 
trade credit, which is the cost of discounts not taken.
a. True
b. False
(15-9) Trade credit F S Answer: a  EASY
18. As a rule, managers should try to always use the free component of trade 
credit but should use the costly component only if the cost of this 
credit is lower than the cost of credit from other sources.
a. True
b. False
(15-9) Trade credit F S Answer: a  EASY
19. If a firm's suppliers stop offering discounts, then its use of trade 
credit is more likely to increase than to decrease other things held 
constant.
a. True
b. False
(15-9) Trade credit F S Answer: a  EASY
20. When deciding whether or not to take a trade discount, the cost of 
borrowing from a bank or other source should be compared to the cost of 
trade credit to determine if the cash discount should be taken.
a. True
b. False
(15-9) Cost of trade credit F S Answer: a  EASY
21. The calculated cost of trade credit can be reduced by paying late.
a. True
b. False(15-9) Cost of trade credit C S Answer: a  EASY
22. The calculated cost of trade credit for a firm that buys on terms of 
2/10, net 30, is lower (other things held constant) if the firm plans to
pay in 40 days than in 30 days.
a. True
b. False
(15-9) Cost of trade credit F S Answer: a  EASY
23. One of the effects of ceasing to take trade credit discounts is that the 
firm's accounts payable will rise, other things held constant.
a. True
b. False
(15-9) Stretching payables F S Answer: b  EASY
24. "Stretching" accounts payable is a widely accepted, entirely ethical, 
and costless financing technique.
a. True
b. False
(15-10) Bank loans F S Answer: b  EASY
25. An informal line of credit and a revolving credit agreement are similar 
except that the line of credit creates a legal obligation for the bank 
and thus is a more reliable source of funds for the borrower.
a. True
b. False
(15-10) Bank loans F S Answer: a  EASY
26. The maturity of most bank loans is short term.  Bank loans to businesses 
are frequently made as 90-day notes which are often rolled over, or 
renewed, rather than repaid when they mature.  However, if the 
borrower's financial situation deteriorates, then the bank may refuse to
roll over the loan.
a. True
b. False
(15-10) Line of credit F S Answer: a  EASY
27. A line of credit can be either a formal or an informal agreement between 
a borrower and a bank regarding the maximum amount of credit the bank 
will extend to the borrower during some future period, assuming the 
borrower maintains its financial strength.
a. True
b. False
(15-10) Revolving credit F S Answer: a  EASY
28. If a firm has set up a revolving credit agreement with a bank, the risk 
to the firm of being unable to obtain funds when needed is lower than if
it had an informal line of credit.a. True
b. False
(15-12) Accruals F S Answer: a  EASY
29. Accruals are "free" capital in the sense that no explicit interest must 
normally be paid on accrued liabilities.
a. True
b. False
(15-12) Accruals F S Answer: a  EASY
30. Accruals are "spontaneous," but unfortunately, due to law and economic 
forces, firms have little control over the level of these accounts.
a. True
b. False
(15-12) Accruals F S Answer: b  EASY
31. The facts (1) that no explicit interest is paid on accruals and (2) that 
the firm can vary the level of these accounts at will makes them an 
attractive source of funding to meet working capital needs.
a. True
b. False
(15-3) Maturity matching F S Answer: a  MEDIUM
32. Uncertainty about the exact lives of assets prevents precise maturity 
matching in an ex post (i.e., after the fact) sense even though it is 
possible to match maturities on an ex ante (expected) basis.
a. True
b. False
(15-3) Maturity matching F S Answer: b  MEDIUM
33. The maturity matching, or "self-liquidating," approach to financing 
involves obtaining the funds for permanent current assets with a 
combination of long-term capital and short-term capital that varies 
depending on the level of interest rates.  When short-term rates are 
relatively high, short-term assets will be financed with long-term debt 
to reduce costs.
a. True
b. False
(15-3) Aggressive financing F S Answer: a  MEDIUM
34. A firm that follows an aggressive working capital financing approach 
uses primarily short-term credit and thus is more exposed to an 
unexpected increase in interest rates than is a firm that uses long-term
capital and thus follows a conservative financing policy.
a. True
b. False
(15-3) Aggressive financing F S Answer: b  MEDIUM35. The relative profitability of a firm that employs an aggressive working 
capital financing policy will improve if the yield curve changes from 
upward sloping to downward sloping.
a. True
b. False
(15-3) Short-term financing F S Answer: a  MEDIUM
36. If the yield curve is upward sloping, then short-term debt will be 
cheaper than long-term debt.  Thus, if a firm's CFO expects the yield 
curve to continue to have an upward slope, this would tend to cause the 
current ratio to be relatively low, other things held constant. 
a. True
b. False
(15-3) Short-term financing F S Answer: a  MEDIUM
37. The risk to the firm of borrowing using short-term credit is usually 
greater than if it used long-term debt.  Added risk stems from (1) the 
greater variability of interest costs on short-term than long-term debt 
and (2) the fact that even if its long-term prospects are good, the 
firm's lenders may not be willing to renew short-term loans if the firm 
is temporarily unable to repay those loans.
a. True
b. False
(15-3) Short-term financing F S Answer: b  MEDIUM
38. Long-term loan agreements always contain provisions, or covenants, that 
constrain the firm's future actions.  Short-term credit agreements are 
just as restrictive in order to protect the interest of the lender.
a. True
b. False
(15-3) Short-term financing C S Answer: a  MEDIUM
39. A firm constructing a new manufacturing plant and financing it with 
short-term loans, which are scheduled to be converted to first mortgage 
bonds when the plant is completed, would want to separate the 
construction loan from its current liabilities associated with working 
capital when calculating net working capital.
a. True
b. False
(15-4) Cash conversion cycle F S Answer: a  MEDIUM
40. The longer its customers normally hold inventory, the longer the credit 
period supplier firms normally offer.  Still, suppliers have some 
flexibility in the credit terms they offer.  If a supplier lengthens the
credit period offered, this will shorten the customer's cash conversion 
cycle but lengthen the supplier firm's own CCC.
a. True
b. False
(15-4) Cash conversion cycle F S Answer: a  MEDIUM41. The cash conversion cycle (CCC) combines three factors:  The inventory 
conversion period, the receivables collection period, and the payables 
deferral period, and its purpose is to show how long a firm must finance
its working capital.  Other things held constant, the shorter the CCC, 
the more effective the firm's working capital management.
a. True
b. False
(15-5) Seasonal cash patterns F S Answer: b  MEDIUM
42. The target cash balance is typically (and logically) set so that it does 
not need to be adjusted for either seasonal patterns or unanticipated 
random fluctuations.
a. True
b. False
(15-5) Cash budget F S Answer: b  MEDIUM
43. A firm's peak borrowing needs will probably be overstated if it bases 
its monthly cash budget on the assumption that both cash receipts and 
cash payments occur uniformly over the month but in reality payments are
concentrated at the beginning of each month.
a. True
b. False
(15-5) Cash budget F S Answer: a  MEDIUM
44. A firm's peak borrowing needs will probably be overstated if it bases 
its monthly cash budget on the assumption that both cash receipts and 
cash payments occur uniformly over the month but in reality receipts are
concentrated at the beginning of each month.
a. True
b. False
(15-5) Cash and capital budgets F S Answer: b  MEDIUM
45. The cash budget and the capital budget are handled separately, and 
although they are both important, they are developed completely 
independently of one another.
a. True
b. False
(15-5) Cash budget and depreciation F S Answer: b  MEDIUM
46. Since depreciation is a non-cash charge, it neither appears on nor has 
any effect on the cash budget.  Thus, if the depreciation charge for the
coming year doubled or halved, this would have no effect on the cash 
budget.
a. True
b. False
(15-5) Cash flow synchronization F S Answer: a  MEDIUM
47. Synchronization of cash flows is an important cash management technique, 
as proper synchronization can reduce the required cash balance and 
increase a firm's profitability.a. True
b. False
(15-6) Lockbox C S Answer: b  MEDIUM
48. On average, a firm collects checks totaling $250,000 per day.  It takes 
the firm approximately 4 days from the day the checks were mailed until 
they result in usable cash for the firm.  Assume that (1) a lockbox 
system could be employed which would reduce the cash conversion 
procedure to 2 1/2 days and (2) the firm could invest any additional 
cash generated at 6% after taxes.  The lockbox system would be a good 
buy if it costs $25,000 annually.
a. True
b. False
(15-8) Receivables balance F S Answer: b  MEDIUM
49. Since receivables and payables both result from sales transactions, a 
firm with a high receivables-to-sales ratio must also have a high 
payables-to-sales ratio.
a. True
b. False
(15-8) Receivables and growth C S Answer: b  MEDIUM
50. Dimon Products' sales are expected to be $5 million this year, with 90% 
on credit and 10% for cash. Sales are expected to grow at a stable, 
steady rate of 10% annually in the future.  Dimon's accounts receivable 
balance will remain constant at the current level, because the 10% cash 
sales can be used to support the 10% growth rate, other things held 
constant.
a. True
b. False
(15-8) Receivables and growth C S Answer: a  MEDIUM
51. For a zero-growth firm, it is possible to increase the percentage of 
sales that are made on credit and still keep accounts receivable at 
their current level, provided the firm can shorten the length of its 
collection period sufficiently.
a. True
b. False
(15-8) Collection policy F S Answer: a  MEDIUM
52. A firm's collection policy, i.e., the procedures it follows to collect 
accounts receivable, plays an important role in keeping its average 
collection period short, although too strict a collection policy can 
reduce profits due to lost sales.
a. True
b. False
(15-8) Collection policy F S Answer: a  EASY
53. Changes in a firm's collection policy can affect sales, working capital, 
and profits.a. True
b. False
(15-8) Cash vs. credit sales F S Answer: b  MEDIUM
54. Because money has time value, a cash sale is always more profitable than 
a credit sale.
a. True
b. False
(15-8) DSO and past due accounts C S Answer: b  MEDIUM
55. If a firm sells on terms of 2/10, net 30 days, and its DSO is 28 days, 
then the fact that the 28-day DSO is less than the 30-day credit period 
tell us that the credit department is functioning efficiently and there 
are no past due accounts.
a. True
b. False
(15-9) Trade credit F S Answer: b  MEDIUM
56. If a firm switched from taking trade credit discounts to paying on the 
net due date, this might cost the firm some money, but such a policy 
would probably have only a negligible effect on the income statement and
no effect whatever on the balance sheet.
a. True
b. False
(15-9) Stretching payables F S Answer: a  MEDIUM
57. If a profitable firm finds that it simply must "stretch" its accounts 
payable, then this suggests that it is undercapitalized, i.e., that it 
needs more working capital to support its operations.
a. True
b. False
(15-9) Stretching payables F S Answer: b  MEDIUM
58. If one of your firm's customers is "stretching" its accounts payable, 
this may be a nuisance but it does not represent a real financial cost 
to your firm as long as the customer periodically pays off its entire 
balance.
a. True
b. False
(15-10) Prime rate F S Answer: b  MEDIUM
59. The prime rate charged by big money center banks at any one time is 
likely to vary greatly (for example, as much as 2 to 4 percentage 
points) across banks due to banks' ability to differentiate themselves 
and because different banks operate in different parts of the country.
a. True
b. False
(15-10) Revolving credit F S Answer: a  MEDIUM60. A revolving credit agreement is a formal line of credit.  The firm must 
generally pay a fee on the unused balance of the committed funds to 
compensate the bank for the commitment to extend those funds.
a. True
b. False
(15-10) Promissory note F S Answer: b  HARD
61. A promissory note is the document signed when a bank loan is executed, 
and it specifies financial aspects of the loan.  The bank can hold the 
note in its loan portfolio, sell it to a permanent investor like a life 
insurance company or pension fund, or bundle it with other notes payable
and use it as collateral for an asset-backed security that trades on the
open market.
a. True
b. False
(15-1) Working capital C S Answer: c  EASY
62. Other things held constant, which of the following will cause an 
increase in net working capital?
a. Cash is used to buy marketable securities.
b. A cash dividend is declared and paid.
c. Merchandise is sold at a profit, but the sale is on credit.
d. Long-term bonds are retired with the proceeds of a preferred stock 
issue.
e. Missing inventory is written off against retained earnings.
(15-3) Current asset financing C S Answer: a  EASY
63. Firms generally choose to finance temporary current assets with shortterm debt because
a. matching the maturities of assets and liabilities reduces risk under 
some circumstances, and also because short-term debt is often less 
expensive than long-term capital.
b. short-term interest rates have traditionally been more stable than 
long-term interest rates.
c. a firm that borrows heavily on a long-term basis is more apt to be 
unable to repay the debt than a firm that borrows short term.
d. the yield curve is normally downward sloping.
e. short-term debt has a higher cost than equity capital.
(15-4) Cash conversion cycle C S Answer: b  EASY
64. Helena Furnishings wants to reduce its cash conversion cycle.  Which of 
the following actions should it take?
a. Increases average inventory without increasing sales.
b. Take steps to reduce the DSO.
c. Start paying its bills sooner, which would reduce the average 
accounts payable but not affect sales.
d. Sell common stock to retire long-term bonds.
e. Sell an issue of long-term bonds and use the proceeds to buy back 
some of its common stock.
(15-6) Lockbox C S Answer: d  EASY65. A lockbox plan is
a. used to protect cash, i.e., to keep it from being stolen.
b. used to identify inventory safety stocks.
c. used to slow down the collection of checks our firm writes.
d. used to speed up the collection of checks received.
e. used primarily by firms where currency is used frequently in 
transactions, such as fast food restaurants, and less frequently by 
firms that receive payments as checks.
(15-6) Lockbox C S Answer: e  EASY
66. A lockbox plan is most beneficial to firms that
a. have suppliers who operate in many different parts of the country.
b. have widely disbursed manufacturing facilities.
c. have a large marketable securities portfolio, and cash, to protect.
d. receive payments in the form of currency, such as fast food 
restaurants, rather than in the form of checks.
e. have customers who operate in many different parts of the country.
(15-8) Credit policy C S Answer: e  EASY
67. Which of the following is NOT commonly regarded as being a credit policy 
variable?
a. Credit period.
b. Collection policy.
c. Credit standards.
d. Cash discounts.
e. Payments deferral period.
(15-4) Cash conversion cycle C S Answer: d  MEDIUM
68. Other things held constant, which of the following would tend to reduce
the cash conversion cycle?
a. Carry a constant amount of receivables as sales decline.
b. Place larger orders for raw materials to take advantage of price 
breaks.
c. Take all discounts that are offered.
d. Continue to take all discounts that are offered and pay on the net 
date.
e. Offer longer payment terms to customers.
(15-4) Cash conversion cycle C S Answer: a  MEDIUM
69. Which of the following actions would be likely to shorten the cash 
conversion cycle?
a. Adopt a new manufacturing process that speeds up the conversion of 
raw materials to finished goods from 20 days to 10 days.
b. Change the credit terms offered to customers from 3/10, net 30 to 
1/10, net 50.
c. Begin to take discounts on inventory purchases; we buy on terms of 
2/10, net 30.
d. Adopt a new manufacturing process that saves some labor costs but 
slows down the conversion of raw materials to finished goods from 10 
days to 20 days.
e. Change the credit terms offered to customers from 2/10, net 30 to 
1/10, net 60.(15-5) Cash budget C S Answer: e  MEDIUM
70. Which of the following is NOT directly reflected in the cash budget of a 
firm that is in the zero tax bracket?
a. Payments lags.
b. Payment for plant construction.
c. Cumulative cash.
d. Repurchases of common stock.
e. Writing off bad debts.
(15-5) Cash budget C S Answer: b  MEDIUM
71. Which of the following is NOT directly reflected in the cash budget of a 
firm that is in the zero tax bracket?
a. Payments lags.
b. Depreciation.
c. Cumulative cash.
d. Repurchases of common stock.
e. Payment for plant construction.
(15-5) Cash budget C S Answer: a  MEDIUM
72. Which of the following statements concerning the cash budget is CORRECT?
a. Depreciation expense is not explicitly included, but depreciation's 
effects are reflected in the estimated tax payments.
b. Cash budgets do not include financial items such as interest and 
dividend payments.
c. Cash budgets do not include cash inflows from long-term sources such 
as the issuance of bonds.
d. Changes that affect the DSO do not affect the cash budget.
e. Capital budgeting decisions have no effect on the cash budget until 
projects go into operation and start producing revenues.
(15-5) Cash budget C S Answer: b  MEDIUM
73. Which of the following items should a company report directly in its 
monthly cash budget?
a. Its monthly depreciation expense.
b. Cash proceeds from selling one of its divisions.
c. Accrued interest on zero coupon bonds that it issued.
d. New shares issued in a stock split.
e. New shares issued in a stock dividend.
(15-7) Inventory management C S Answer: b  MEDIUM
74. Which of the following statements is most consistent with efficient 
inventory management?  The firm has a
a. below average inventory turnover ratio.
b. low incidence of production schedule disruptions.
c. below average total assets turnover ratio.
d. relatively high current ratio.
e. relatively low DSO.
(Comp.) Current asset financing C S Answer: b  MEDIUM75. Which of the following statements is CORRECT?
a. Trade credit is provided only to relatively large, strong firms.
b. Commercial paper is a form of short-term financing that is primarily 
used by large, strong, financially stable companies.
c. Short-term debt is favored by firms because, while it is generally 
more expensive than long-term debt, it exposes the borrowing firm to 
less risk than long-term debt.
d. Commercial paper can be issued by virtually any firm so long as it is 
willing to pay the going interest rate.
e. Commercial paper is typically offered at a long-term maturity of at 
least five years.Problems
(15-3) Maturity matching C S Answer: e  EASY
76. Halka Company is a no-growth firm.  Its sales fluctuate seasonally, 
causing total assets to vary from $320,000 to $410,000, but fixed assets
remain constant at $260,000.  If the firm follows a maturity matching 
(or moderate) working capital financing policy, what is the most likely 
total of long-term debt plus equity capital?
a. $260,642
b. $274,360
c. $288,800
d. $304,000
e. $320,000
(15-4) Cash conversion cycle C S Answer: d  EASY
77. Cass & Company has the following data.   What is the firm's cash 
conversion cycle?
Inventory conversion period = 50 days
Receivables collection period = 17 days
Payables deferral period = 25 days
a. 31 days
b. 34 days
c. 38 days
d. 42 days
e. 46 days
(15-4) Cash conversion cycle C S Answer: b  EASY
78. Romano Inc. has the following data.  What is the firm's cash conversion 
cycle?
Inventory conversion period = 38 days
Receivables collection period = 19 days
Payables deferral period = 20 days
a. 33 days
b. 37 days
c. 41 days
d. 45 days
e. 49 days
(15-4) Cash conversion cycle C S Answer: e  EASY
79. Whittington Inc. has the following data.   What is the firm's cash 
conversion cycle?
Inventory conversion period = 41 days
Receivables collection period = 31 days
Payables deferral period = 38 days
a. 31 days
b. 34 days
c. 37 days
d. 41 days
e. 45 days(15-4) Cash conversion cycle C S Answer: d  EASY
80. Inmoo Company’s average age of accounts receivable is 45 days, the 
average age of accounts payable is 40 days, and the average age of 
inventory is 69 days.  Assuming a 365-day year, what is the length of 
its cash conversion cycle?
a. 63 days
b. 67 days
c. 70 days
d. 74 days
e. 78 days
(15-5) Cash budget C S Answer: d  EASY
81. Singal Inc. is preparing its cash budget.  It expects to have sales of 
$30,000 in January, $35,000 in February, and $35,000 in March.  If 20% 
of sales are for cash, 40% are credit sales paid in the month after the 
sale, and another 40% are credit sales paid 2 months after the sale, 
what are the expected cash receipts for March?
a. $24,057
b. $26,730
c. $29,700
d. $33,000
e. $36,300
(15-8) Accounts receivable balance C S Answer: a  EASY
82. Dyl Pickle Inc. had credit sales of $3,500,000 last year and its days 
sales outstanding was DSO = 35 days.  What was its average receivables 
balance, based on a 365-day year?
a. $335,616
b. $352,397
c. $370,017
d. $388,518
e. $407,944
(15-4) Inventory conv. period C S Answer: d  MEDIUM
83. Your firm's cost of goods sold (COGS) average $2,000,000 per month, and 
it keeps inventory equal to 50% of its monthly COGS on hand at all 
times.  Using a 365-day year, what is its inventory conversion period?
a. 11.7 days
b. 13.0 days
c. 14.4 days
d. 15.2 days
e. 16.7 days
(15-4) Payables deferral period C S Answer: e  MEDIUM
84. Data on Wentz Inc. for 2008 are shown below, along with the payables 
deferral period (PDP) for the firms against which it benchmarks. The 
firm's new CFO believes that the company could delay payments enough to 
increase its PDP to the benchmarks' average.  If this were done, by how 
much would payables increase?  Use a 365-day year.
Cost of goods sold = $75,000
Payables = $5,000Payables deferral period (PDP) = 24.33
Benchmark payables deferral period = 30.00
a. $764
b. $849
c. $943
d. $1,048
e. $1,164
(15-4) Cash conversion cycle C S Answer: e  MEDIUM
85. Your consulting firm was recently hired to improve the performance of 
Shin-Soenen Inc, which is highly profitable but has been experiencing 
cash shortages due to its high growth rate.  As one part of your 
analysis, you want to determine the firm’s cash conversion cycle.  Using
the following information and a 365-day year, what is the firm’s present
cash conversion cycle?
Average inventory = $75,000
Annual sales = $600,000
Annual cost of goods sold = $360,000
Average accounts receivable = $160,000
Average accounts payable = $25,000
a. 120.6 days
b. 126.9 days
c. 133.6 days
d. 140.6 days
e. 148.0 days
(15-4) Cash conversion cycle C S Answer: d  MEDIUM
86. Dewey Corporation has the following data, in thousands.  Assuming a 365-
day year, what is the firm's cash conversion cycle?
Annual sales = $45,000
Annual cost of goods sold = $31,500
Inventory = $4,000
Accounts receivable = $2,000
Accounts payable = $2,400
a. 25 days
b. 28 days
c. 31 days
d. 35 days
e. 38 days
(15-4) Cash conversion cycle C S Answer: d  MEDIUM
87. Desai Inc. has the following data, in thousands.  Assuming a 365-day 
year, what is the firm's cash conversion cycle?
Annual sales = $45,000
Annual cost of goods sold = $30,000
Inventory = $4,500
Accounts receivable = $1,800
Accounts payable = $2,500
a. 28 days
b. 32 daysc. 35 days
d. 39 days
e. 43 days
(15-4) Cash conversion cycle C S Answer: b  MEDIUM
88. Edison Inc. has annual sales of $36,500,000, or $100,000 a day on a 365-
day basis.  The firm's cost of goods sold is 75% of sales.  On average, 
the company has $9,000,000 in inventory and $8,000,000 in accounts 
receivable.  The firm is looking for ways to shorten its cash conversion
cycle.  Its CFO has proposed new policies that would result in a 20% 
reduction in both average inventories and accounts receivable.  She also
anticipates that these policies would reduce sales by 10%, while the 
payables deferral period would remain unchanged at 35 days.  What effect
would these policies have on the company's cash conversion cycle?  Round
to the nearest whole day.
a. -26 days
b. -22 days
c. -18 days
d. -14 days
e. -11 days
(15-4) Cash conversion cycle C S Answer: e  MEDIUM
89. Van Den Borsh Corp. has annual sales of $50,735,000, an average 
inventory level of $15,012,000, and average accounts receivable of 
$10,008,000.  The firm's cost of goods sold is 85% of sales.  The 
company makes all purchases on credit and has always paid on the 30th 
day.  However, it now plans to take full advantage of trade credit and 
to pay its suppliers on the 40th day.  The CFO also believes that sales 
can be maintained at the existing level but inventory can be lowered by 
$1,946,000 and accounts receivable by $1,946,000.  What will be the net 
change in the cash conversion cycle, assuming a 365-day year?
a. -26.6 days
b. -29.5 days
c. -32.8 days
d. -36.4 days
e. -40.5 days
(15-5) Cash budget C S Answer: c  MEDIUM
90. Nogueiras Corp’s budgeted monthly sales are $5,000, and they are 
constant from month to month.  40% of its customers pay in the first 
month and take the 2% discount, while the remaining 60% pay in the month
following the sale and do not receive a discount.  The firm has no bad 
debts.  Purchases for next month’s sales are constant at 50% of 
projected sales for the next month.  “Other payments,” which include 
wages, rent, and taxes, are 25% of sales for the current month.  
Construct a cash budget for a typical month and calculate the average 
cash gain or loss during the month.
a. $1,092
b. $1,150
c. $1,210
d. $1,271
e. $1,334(15-6) Lockbox C S Answer: d  MEDIUM
91. Whitmer Inc. sells to customers all over the U.S., and all receipts come 
in to its headquarters in New York City.  The firm's average accounts 
receivable balance is $2.5 million, and they are financed by a bank loan
at an 11% annual interest rate.  The firm is considering setting up a 
regional lockbox system to speed up collections, and it believes this 
would reduce receivables by 20%.  If the annual cost of the system is 
$15,000, what pre-tax net annual savings would be realized?
a. $29,160
b. $32,400
c. $36,000
d. $40,000
e. $44,000
(15-9) Trade credit: nom. cost C S Answer: a  MEDIUM
92. A firm buys on terms of 3/15, net 45.  It does not take the discount, 
and it generally pays after 60 days.  What is the nominal annual 
percentage cost of its non-free trade credit, based on a 365-day year?
a. 25.09%
b. 27.59%
c. 30.35%
d. 33.39%
e. 36.73%
(15-9) Trade credit: nom. cost C S Answer: e  MEDIUM
93. Atlanta Cement, Inc. buys on terms of 2/15, net 30.  It does not take 
discounts, and it typically pays 60 days after the invoice date.  Net 
purchases amount to $720,000 per year.  What is the nominal annual 
percentage cost of its non-free trade credit, based on a 365-day year?
a. 10.86%
b. 12.07%
c. 13.41%
d. 14.90%
e. 16.55%
(15-9) Trade credit: nom. cost C S Answer: b  MEDIUM
94. Your company has been offered credit terms of 4/30, net 90 days.  What 
will be the nominal annual percentage cost of its non-free trade credit 
if it pays 120 days after the purchase?  (Assume a 365-day year.)
a. 16.05%
b. 16.90%
c. 17.74%
d. 18.63%
e. 19.56%
(15-9) Trade credit: EAR cost C S Answer: d  MEDIUM
95. Bumpas Enterprises purchases $4,562,500 in goods per year from its sole 
supplier on terms of 2/15, net 50.  If the firm chooses to pay on time 
but does not take the discount, what is the effective annual percentage 
cost of its non-free trade credit?  (Assume a 365-day year.)
a. 20.11%b. 21.17%
c. 22.28%
d. 23.45%
e. 24.63%
(15-9) Trade credit:  EAR cost C S Answer: c  MEDIUM
96. A firm buys on terms of 2/8, net 45 days, it does not take discounts, 
and it actually pays after 58 days.  What is the effective annual 
percentage cost of its non-free trade credit? (Use a 365-day year.)
a. 14.34%
b. 15.10%
c. 15.89%
d. 16.69%
e. 17.52%
(15-9) Free trade credit C S Answer: a  MEDIUM
97. Buskirk Construction buys on terms of 2/15, net 60 days.  It does not 
take discounts, and it typically pays on time, 60 days after the invoice
date.  Net purchases amount to $450,000 per year.  On average, how much 
“free” trade credit does the firm receive during the year?  (Assume a 
365-day year, and note that purchases are net of discounts.)
a. $18,493
b. $19,418
c. $20,389
d. $21,408
e. $22,479
(15-9) Costly trade credit C S Answer: a  MEDIUM
98. Ingram Office Supplies, Inc., buys on terms of 2/15, net 50 days.  It 
does not take discounts, and it typically pays on time, 50 days after 
the invoice date.  Net purchases amount to $450,000 per year.  On 
average, what is the dollar amount of costly trade credit (total credit 
– free credit) the firm receives during the year?  (Assume a 365-day 
year, and note that purchases are net of discounts.)
a. $43,151
b. $45,308
c. $47,574
d. $49,952
e. $52,450
(15-9) Costly trade credit C S Answer: a  MEDIUM
99. Roton Inc. purchases merchandise on terms of 2/15, net 40, and its gross 
purchases (i.e., purchases before taking off the discount) are $800,000 
per year.  What is the maximum dollar amount of costly trade credit the 
firm could get, assuming it abides by the supplier’s credit terms?  
(Assume a 365-day year.)
a. $53,699
b. $56,384
c. $59,203
d. $62,163
e. $65,271
15
50
days
  
365
2
100
2


(15-9) Total trade credit C S Answer: a  MEDIUM
100. Kirk Development buys on terms of 2/15, net 60 days.  It does not take 
discounts, and it typically pays on time, 60 days after the invoice 
date.  Net purchases amount to $550,000 per year.  On average, what is 
the dollar amount of total trade credit (costly + free) the firm 
receives during the year, i.e., what are its average accounts payable?  
(Assume a 365-day year, and note that purchases are net of discounts.)
a. $90,411
b. $94,932
c. $99,678
d. $104,662
e. $109,895
(15-10) Revolving credit agreement C S Answer: b  MEDIUM
101. Weiss Inc. arranged a $9,000,000 revolving credit agreement with a group 
of banks.  The firm paid an annual commitment fee of 0.5% of the unused 
balance of the loan commitment.  On the used portion of the revolver, it
paid 1.5% above prime for the funds actually borrowed on a simple 
interest basis.  The prime rate was 9% during the year.  If the firm 
borrowed $6,000,000 immediately after the agreement was signed and 
repaid the loan at the end of one year, what was the total dollar annual
cost of the revolver?
a. $612,750
b. $645,000
c. $677,250
d. $711,113
e. $746,668
(Comp.) Working capital, FCF C S Answer: b  HARD
102. Madura Inc. wants to increase its free cash flow by $180 million during 
the coming year, which should result in a higher EVA and stock price.  
The CFO has made these projections for the upcoming year:
 EBIT is projected to equal $850 million.
 Gross capital expenditures are expected to total to $360 million 
versus depreciation of $120 million, so its net capital expenditures 
should total $240 million.
 The tax rate is 40%.
 There will be no changes in cash or marketable securities, nor will 
there be any changes in notes payable or accruals.
What increase in net working capital (in millions of dollars) would 
enable the firm to meet its target increase in FCF?
a. $72
b. $90
c. $108
d. $130
e. $15






(16-2) Sales forecast F K Answer: a  EASY
1. The first, and most critical, step in constructing a set of forecasted 
financial statements is the sales forecast.
a. True
b. False
(16-2) Sales forecast F K Answer: a  EASY
2. A typical sales forecast, though concerned with future events, will 
usually be based on recent historical trends and events as well as on 
forecasts of economic prospects.
a. True
b. False
(16-2) Sales forecast F K Answer: b  EASY
3. Errors in the sales forecast can be offset by similar errors in costs 
and income forecasts.  Thus, as long as the errors are not large, sales 
forecast accuracy is not critical to the firm.
a. True
b. False
(16-3) Spontaneously gen. funds F K Answer: a  EASY
4. As a firm's sales grow, its current assets also tend to increase.  For 
instance, as sales increase, the firm's inventories generally increase, 
and purchases of inventories result in more accounts payable.  Thus, 
spontaneously generated funds arise from transactions brought on by 
sales increases.
a. True
b. False
(16-3) Spontaneously gen. funds F K Answer: b  EASY
5. The term "spontaneously generated funds" generally refers to increases 
in the cash account that result from growth in sales, assuming the firm 
is operating with a positive profit margin.
a. True
b. False
(16-3) Asset increase F K Answer: a  EASY
6. A rapid build-up of inventories normally requires additional financing, 
unless the increase is matched by an equally large decrease in some 
other asset.
a. True
b. False
(16-3) Additional funds needed F K Answer: b  EASY
7. If a firm wants to maintain its ratios at their existing levels, then if 
it has a positive sales growth rate of any amount, it will require some 
amount of external funding.
a. True
b. FalsePage 664 True/False Chapter 16:  Forecasting
(16-3) Additional funds needed F K Answer: b  EASY
8. To determine the amount of additional funds needed (AFN), you may 
subtract the expected increase in liabilities, which represents a source
of funds, from the sum of the expected increases in retained earnings 
and assets, both of which are uses of funds.
a. True
b. False
(16-4) Forecasted statements F K Answer: a  EASY
9. One of the key steps in the development of the forecasted balance sheet 
is to identify those assets and liabilities that increase at the same 
rate as sales.
a. True
b. False
(16-3) Additional funds needed F K Answer: a  MEDIUM
10. If a firm with a positive net worth is operating its fixed assets at 
full capacity, if its dividend payout ratio is 100%, and if it wants to 
hold all financial ratios constant, then for any positive growth rate in
sales, it will require external financing. 
a. True
b. False
(16-3) Additional funds needed F K Answer: b  MEDIUM
11. A firm's profit margin is 5%, its debt/assets ratio is 56%, and its 
dividend payout ratio is 40%.  If the firm is operating at less than 
full capacity, then sales could increase to some extent without the need
for external funds, but if it is operating at full capacity with respect
to all assets, including fixed assets, then any positive growth in sales
will require some external financing.
a. True
b. False
(16-3) Capital intensity ratio F K Answer: a  MEDIUM
12. Two firms with identical capital intensity ratios are generating the 
same amount of sales.  However, Firm A is operating at full capacity, 
while Firm B is operating below capacity.  If the two firms expect the 
same growth in sales during the next period, then Firm A is likely to 
need more additional funds than Firm B, other things held constant.
a. True
b. False
(16-3) Capital intensity ratio F K Answer: b  MEDIUM
13. If a firm's capital intensity ratio (A
*
0/S0) decreases as sales increase, 
use of the AFN formula is likely to understate the amount of additional 
funds required, other things held constant.
a. True
b. FalseChapter 16:  Forecasting True/False Page 665
(16-4) Financial forecasting F K Answer: b  MEDIUM
14. The fact that long-term debt and common stock are raised infrequently 
and in large amounts lessens the need for the firm to forecast those 
accounts on a continual basis.
a. True
b. False
(16-5) AFN formula and linear reg. F K Answer: a  MEDIUM
15. When we use the AFN formula to forecast the additional funds needed 
(AFN), we are implicitly assuming that all financial ratios are 
constant.  If financial ratios are not constant, regression techniques 
can be used to improve the financial forecast.
a. True
b. FalsePage 666 Problems Chapter 16:  Forecasting
Multiple Choice:  Conceptual
(16-1) Strategic planning C K Answer: c  EASY
16. Which of the following is NOT a key element in strategic planning as it 
is described in the text?
a. The mission statement.
b. The statement of the corporation’s scope.
c. The statement of cash flows.
d. The statement of corporate objectives.
e. The operating plan.
(16-3) AFN formula method C K Answer: b  EASY
17. Which of the following assumptions is embodied in the AFN formula?
a. All balance sheet accounts are tied directly to sales.
b. Accounts payable and accruals are tied directly to sales.
c. Common stock and long-term debt are tied directly to sales.
d. Fixed assets, but not current assets, are tied directly to sales.
e. Last year’s total assets were not optimal for last year’s sales.
(16-3) Additional funds needed C K Answer: a  EASY/MEDIUM
18. Jefferson City Computers has developed a forecasting model to estimate 
its AFN for the upcoming year.  All else being equal, which of the 
following factors is most likely to lead to an increase of the 
additional funds needed (AFN)?
a. A sharp increase in its forecasted sales.
b. A sharp reduction in its forecasted sales.
c. The company reduces its dividend payout ratio.
d. The company switches its materials purchases to a supplier that sells 
on terms of 1/5, net 90, from a supplier whose terms are 3/15, net 
35.
e. The company discovers that it has excess capacity in its fixed 
assets.
(16-3) Additional funds needed C K Answer: b  EASY/MEDIUM
19. The term “additional funds needed (AFN)” is generally defined as 
follows:
a. Funds that are obtained automatically from routine business 
transactions.
b. Funds that a firm must raise externally from non-spontaneous sources, 
i.e., by borrowing or by selling new stock, to support operations.
c. The amount of assets required per dollar of sales.
d. The amount of internally generated cash in a given year minus the 
amount of cash needed to acquire the new assets needed to support 
growth.
e. A forecasting approach in which the forecasted percentage of sales 
for each balance sheet account is held constant.
(16-3) Capital intensity ratio C K Answer: e  EASY/MEDIUM
20. The capital intensity ratio is generally defined as follows:
a. Sales divided by total assets, i.e., the total assets turnover ratio.Chapter 16:  Forecasting Problems Page 667
b. The percentage of liabilities that increase spontaneously as a 
percentage of sales.
c. The ratio of sales to current assets.
d. The ratio of current assets to sales.
e. The amount of assets required per dollar of sales, or A
*
0/S0.
(16-1) Financial planning C K Answer: e  MEDIUM
21. Which of the following is NOT one of the steps taken in the financial 
planning process?
a. Assumptions are made about future levels of sales, costs, and 
interest rates for use in the forecast.
b. The entire financial plan is reexamined, assumptions are reviewed, 
and the management team considers how additional changes in 
operations might improve results.
c. Projected ratios are calculated and analyzed.
d. Develop a set of projected financial statements.
e. Consult with key competitors about the optimal set of prices to 
charge, i.e., the prices that will maximize profits for our firm and 
its competitors.
(16-3) Spontaneously gen. funds C K Answer: d  MEDIUM
22. Spontaneously generated funds are generally defined as follows:
a. Assets required per dollar of sales.
b. A forecasting approach in which the forecasted percentage of sales 
for each item is held constant.
c. Funds that a firm must raise externally through borrowing or by 
selling new common or preferred stock.
d. Funds that arise out of normal business operations from its 
suppliers, employees, and the government, and they include 
spontaneous increases in accounts payable and accruals.
e. The amount of cash raised in a given year minus the amount of cash 
needed to finance the additional capital expenditures and working 
capital needed to support the firm’s growth.
(16-3) Additional funds needed C K Answer: b  MEDIUM
23. A company expects sales to increase during the coming year, and it is 
using the AFN equation to forecast the additional capital that it must 
raise.  Which of the following conditions would cause the AFN to 
increase?
a. The company previously thought its fixed assets were being operated 
at full capacity, but now it learns that it actually has excess 
capacity.
b. The company increases its dividend payout ratio.
c. The company begins to pay employees monthly rather than weekly.
d. The company’s profit margin increases.
e. The company decides to stop taking discounts on purchased materials.
(Comp.) Forecasting concepts C K Answer: b  MEDIUM
24. Which of the following statements is CORRECT?
a. Perhaps the most important step when developing forecasted financial 
statements is to determine the breakdown of common equity between 
common stock and retained earnings.Page 668 Problems Chapter 16:  Forecasting
b. The first, and perhaps the most critical, step in forecasting 
financial requirements is to forecast future sales.
c. Forecasted financial statements, as discussed in the text, are used 
primarily as a part of the managerial compensation program, where 
management’s historical performance is evaluated.
d. The capital intensity ratio gives us an idea of the physical 
condition of the firm’s fixed assets.
e. The AFN equation produces more accurate forecasts than the forecasted 
financial statement method, especially if fixed assets are lumpy and 
economies of scale exist.
Problems
(16-3) Excess capacity C K Answer: a  EASY
25. Last year Godinho Corp. had $250 million of sales, and it had $75 
million of fixed assets that were being operated at 80% of capacity.  In
millions, how large could sales have been if the company had operated at
full capacity?
a. $312.5
b. $328.1
c. $344.5
d. $361.8
e. $379.8
(16-5) Forecasting inv.--regression C K Answer: d  EASY
26. Kamath-Meier Corporation's CFO uses this equation, which was developed 
by regressing inventories on sales over the past 5 years, to forecast 
inventory requirements:  Inventories = $22.0 + 0.125(Sales).  The 
company expects sales of $400 million during the current year, and it 
expects sales to grow by 30% next year.  What is the inventory forecast 
for next year?  All dollars are in millions.
a. $74.6
b. $78.5
c. $82.7
d. $87.0
e. $91.4
(16-3) Excess capacity C K Answer: c  MEDIUM
27. Last year Wei Guan Inc. had $350 million of sales, and it had $270 
million of fixed assets that were used at 65% of capacity.  In millions,
by how much could Wei Guan's sales increase before it is required to 
increase its fixed assets?
a. $170.09
b. $179.04
c. $188.46
d. $197.88
e. $207.78
(16-3) Excess capacity C K Answer: e  MEDIUM
28. Last year Handorf-Zhu Inc. had $850 million of sales, and it had $425 
million of fixed assets that were used at only 60% of capacity.  What is
the maximum sales growth rate the company could achieve before it had to
increase its fixed assets?Chapter 16:  Forecasting Problems Page 669
a. 54.30%
b. 57.16%
c. 60.17%
d. 63.33%
e. 66.67%
(16-3) Finding target FA/S ratio C K Answer: b  MEDIUM
29. Last year Jain Technologies had $250 million of sales and $100 million 
of fixed assets, so its FA/Sales ratio was 40%.  However, its fixed 
assets were used at only 75% of capacity.  Now the company is developing
its financial forecast for the coming year.  As part of that process, 
the company wants to set its target Fixed Assets/Sales ratio at the 
level it would have had had it been operating at full capacity.  What 
target FA/Sales ratio should the company set?
a. 28.5%
b. 30.0%
c. 31.5%
d. 33.1%
e. 34.7%
(16-5) Forecasting inv. turnover C K Answer: a  MEDIUM
30. Fairchild Garden Supply expects $600 million of sales this year, and it 
forecasts a 15% increase for next year.  The CFO uses this equation to 
forecast inventory requirements at different levels of sales:  
Inventories = $30.2 + 0.25(Sales).  All dollars are in millions.  What 
is the projected inventory turnover ratio for the coming year?
a. 3.40
b. 3.57
c. 3.75
d. 3.94
e. 4.14
(16-3) Positive AFN C K Answer: d  MEDIUM/HARD
31. Clayton Industries is planning its operations for next year, and Ronnie 
Clayton, the CEO, wants you to forecast the firm's additional funds 
needed (AFN).  Data for use in your forecast are shown below.  Based on 
the AFN equation, what is the AFN for the coming year?  Dollars are in 
millions.
Last year’s sales = S0 $350 Last year’s accounts payable $40
Sales growth rate = g 30% Last year’s notes payable $50
Last year’s total assets = A
*
0 $500 Last year’s accruals $30
Last year’s profit margin = M 5% Target payout ratio 60%
a. $102.8
b. $108.2
c. $113.9
d. $119.9
e. $125.9
(16-3) Negative AFN C K Answer: c  MEDIUM/HARD
32. Chua Chang & Wu Inc. is planning its operations for next year, and the 
CEO wants you to forecast the firm's additional funds needed (AFN).  
Data for use in your forecast are shown below.  Based on the AFN Page 670 Problems Chapter 16:  Forecasting
equation, what is the AFN for the coming year?
Last year’s sales = S0 $200,000 Last year's accounts payable $50,000
Sales growth rate = g 40% Last year's notes payable $15,000
Last year’s total assets = A*0 $135,000 Last year's accruals $20,000
Last year’s profit margin = M 20.0% Target payout ratio 25.0%
a. -$14,440
b. -$15,200
c. -$16,000
d. -$16,800
e. -$17,640
(16-3) AFN--changing div. payout C K Answer: b  MEDIUM/HARD
33. Howton & Howton Worldwide (HHW) is planning its operations for the 
coming year, and the CEO wants you to forecast the firm's additional 
funds needed (AFN).  Data for use in the forecast are shown below.  
However, the CEO is concerned about the impact of a change in the payout
ratio from the 10% that was used in the past to 50%, which the firm's 
investment bankers have recommended.  Based on the AFN equation, by how 
much would the AFN for the coming year change if HHW increased the 
payout from 10% to the new and higher level?  All dollars are in 
millions.
Last year’s sales = S0 $300.0 Last year’s accounts payable $50.0
Sales growth rate = g 40% Last year’s notes payable $15.0
Last year’s total assets = A0 $500.0 Last year’s accruals $20.0
Last year’s profit margin = M 20.0% Initial payout ratio 10.0%
a. $31.9
b. $33.6
c. $35.3
d. $37.0
e. $38.9
(16-3) Finding target FA/S ratio C K Answer: b  HARD
34. Last year Emery Industries had $450 million of sales and $225 million of 
fixed assets, so its FA/Sales ratio was 50%.  However, its fixed assets 
were used at only 65% of capacity.  If the company had been able to sell
off enough of its fixed assets at book value so that it was operating at
full capacity, with sales held constant at $450 million, how much cash 
(in millions) would it have generated?
a. $74.81
b. $78.75
c. $82.69
d. $86.82
e. $91.1




Formulas:

Maturity Matching
FA + Min CA = LT Debt + Equity

Cash Conversion Cycle
CCC= Inv Con Period + Rec Coll. Pe. – Pay. Def. per

Inventory Conversion Period = INV/ COGS per day = INV/ (Annual Cogs/365)

Rec Coil Per= Sales/ (365) X DSO

Pay Def Per = Pay/(Cogs/365)

Lock Box


Reduct in A/R= % Reduction A/R X Avg. A/R Balance
Ann. Int. Savings= Reduct A/R x Annual I/R

Pretax Annual Savings = Ann. Int Savings – Annual Lock box cost


Nominal % Cost= Disc % / (100-disc %) X (365/ act. Days – Disc Days)

EAR= [ 1+ Disc %/ (100-Disc %)]^[365/(act days-Disc Days)] -1

Free Tax Credit
FC= Disc days X (Purchases/ days 365)

Costly Trade Credit
CTC= (days to pymt- disc days) X (Purchases/days365)

Average Trade Credit
ATC= AVG A/P = Days to pymt X (Net Purchases/days365)

Revolving Credit Agreement

Rate per day = Prime rate + Premium Rate

Interest per day = Rate per day X Amt. Borrowed
Interest per yr= Int Per day X 365
+Cost of Unused= Unused Bal X Fee=Total annual cost of agreement

Working Capital FCF

FCF= EBIT (1-T) + Deprec – CapEx- Change NWC (solve for NWC)


Full Capacity Sales = Act. Sales / % cap used

Required INV(inventory forecast) = Inv X Proj Sales

Additional Sales w/o FA (fixed Ass)=Full  Cap Sales – Actual Sales
% Growth in sales = Add. Sales w/o FA/Old sales

FA/Sales Ratios

Target FA/S Ratio = Full cap FA/Sales



Optimal FA = Sales x Target FA/ Sales Ratio
Cash Generated = Target FA – Optimal FA



Forecasting lav T/O (turnover)

Inv T/O= Proj. Scales/ Req. Inv




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